Study Questions on Cardiac Output: 1. Define cardiac output. 2. What two factors does cardiac output depend on? 3. What is the mathematical formula

  

Study Questions on Cardiac Output:1. Define cardiac output.2. What two factors does cardiac output depend on?3. What is the mathematical formula that relatescardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume.4. Define heart rate.5. What is the average heart rate in an adult at rest?6. Define stroke volume.7.What is the average stroke volume in an adult at rest?8.Define end diastolic volume.9. Define end systolic volume.10.What is the mathematical relationship between end diastolic volume, end systolic volume,and stroke volume?11.If the ESV is 50 ml and the EDV is 120 ml, what is the stroke volume?12.If the heart rate is 75 beats per minute and the stroke volume is 70 ml per beat, then what isthe cardiac output?13.What’s the relationship between cardiac muscle stretch and force of contraction? What effectdoes this have on stroke volume?Figure 14-2814.How does an increased venous return affectstroke volume?15. What is the effect of increased sympathetic activity on heart rate?and stroke volume? Howdoes this effect cardiac output?16. What is the effect of increased parasympathetic activity on heart rate and stroke volume?18. Does a slow heart rate increase or decreasestroke volume?Why?19. What effect does a fast heart rate have on stroke volume?What causes this effect?20. What is the effect of exercise onheart rate and stroke volume? How does this effect cardiacoutput?21. Does sympathetic activity increase or decrease blood pressure? What effect might thathave on heart rate?22. What is the effect of a sudden decrease in blood pressure on heart rate and stroke volume?23. What is the effect of a sudden increase in blood pressure on heart rate?24. What is the effect of a sudden increase in blood pressure on stroke volume?25. What is the effectof a sudden drop in blood volume on heart rate and stroke volume?26.What is the effect of an increase in calcium on heart rate and stroke volume? Biology Science Physiology BIOLOGY 235

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