Reviews with little effort will not get credit. If there are few grammar mistakes, you need to take the time to suggest better paragraph transitions,…


Reviews with little effort will not get credit. If there are few grammarmistakes, you need to take the time to suggest better paragraph transitions, word choices, logical flow, etc.  REVIEW THIS PAPER PLEASE   ADHD CharacteristicsAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is an overly complex thing to live with can make a major difference in someone’s lives because it will change the way you live. To understand ADHD more, I am going to breakdown into smaller pieces. There are three major symptoms that we must keep in mind attention deficits, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The chances of someone getting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are ranges 2 to 18% with the people aging from 6-17 years old.[1] This also makes ADHD the most common disorder among people worldwide. Even though ADHD is quite common, it is difficult to diagnose it properly since there is so many other things it could get confused for such as anxiety disorder, or sleep disorders. [2] This is one of the reasons ADHD is not very well understood in the public for this exact reason, and it could lead to many misconceptions about ADHD. ADHS is diagnose as one of these three types: inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive or a combination of both. Some symptoms of the inattentive type would be they do not pay close attention to details, has problems staying focused on tasks, often loses things needed to perform task like books, keys, and is easily distracted by anything. [5] A hyperactive person would have symptoms of fidgeting a lot, not able to stand still, runs around when inappropriate. Talks too much, always on the go, has difficulty waiting for other people also which makes the interrupt what the person is trying to do. [5] Even with all these symptoms diagnosing someone with ADHD can still be an exceptionally lengthy process because you need so much more information. There is no cause to ADHD at least yet scientist have not identified anything besides that: genetics may be a contribution to it. Some other things might also be being born prematurely, mother doing drugs while pregnant, or having extreme stress while pregnant.  Methods to Diagnose ADHDSince it difficult to diagnose a patient with ADHD just by asking questions, and evaluating them might not be enough. For this reason, doctors have tried to improve the accuracy of ADHD diagnosis, by looking at changes in the brain and use this as diagnostic criteria. To do deeper diagnostics they make the patients go through a magnetic resonance imaging looking for certain activity in the brain such as genes encoding proteins like dopamine beta hydroxylase and dopamine receptors. [3] This makes them easier to asses if the patient has ADHD. Another way they try to improve diagnosis of this is by doing a quantitative electroencephalography, and this measures brain function analyzing the electrical activity in the brain, this makes it easier to diagnose, understand, and determine treatment for the patient. Doctors have started using this method because it is more beneficial as it cost less, quicker, and non-invasive so there is no need for needles or any other things. Since using QEEG scientist have seen the brain act in three diverse ways when having ADHD, the brain waves speed up and slow down differently compared to someone without ADHD. The first type is called maturational lag subtype which is characterized by brain waves that are increased slow wave and decreased fast wave [6]. The second subtype is hyperarousal, which is marked by an increase in theta wave and decrease in beta wave activity [6]. This pattern is worrisome because it is known to cause varies other mental disorders.  The third subtype is hyperarousal, which increases the activity in the cortex with increased beta wave activity in the brain. [6] This subtype is the most common among people who have ADHD especially when being tested with quantitative electroencephalography. It is good that we have QEEG results because they have proven to be more accurate and consistent.   Brain Structure of someone with ADHDThe medical industry really spent a lot of resources examining the brains of many children with ADHD. They used brain scanning technology such as MRI, and these studies showed that the brain circuits linking the prefrontal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum. These brain structures do not function properly on children with ADHD. There’s also more evidence showing that the relationship between the brain structure being different, and this affects the persons behavioral measures such as inhibition and attention. These changes in the brain also make abnormalities in brain circuits which effect the motor response of the brain and how fast they respond to rules or orders they are given. It’s amazing how far our science has come to be able to notice the smallest things in our brain down to how much more chemicals the brain releases, or what parts work differently while having ADHD. They could test out the dopamine levels in the brain by using a radioactive tracer and there’s abnormal dopamine activity in the right midbrain with people that have ADHD. [7] This study also ended up discovering that this rise in dopamine correlated with a majority of the symptoms in children with ADHD. Another study ended up finding out that children with ADHD have smaller corpus callosum, and the study found that since it’s smaller it made sense why people with ADHD have problems with sensory perception and effects planning. [8] Neurobiology of ADHDNeurobiology of ADHD is something scientist have been looking at a lot to find more discoveries in ADHD. They have at least eleven theories, but I am going to just explain two. First is the bottom-up theories think there’s disturbance in the subcortical region, like the hypothalamus, thalamus, and reticular activating systems are responsible for ADHD. The top-down theories think there is dysfunction to the frontal and prefrontal cortex. Scientists have done neuroimaging studies of children with ADHD and found evidence that there are abnormalities in the frontal cortex, cerebellum, and corpus callosum. The cerebellum has been linked to correlate highly with children that have ADHD. This is why children with ADHD demonstrate poor motor performance and balance. Clinical studies show reports that thirty percent to fifty percent of children with ADHD suffer from motor coordination issues. Children with ADHD show difficulty in developing certain skills such as motor coordination, planning and execution, and long tasks.  MedicationThe most common medication given to patients with ADHD are psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, pemoline, and psychostimulants. They’ve had controlled studies using these psychostimulants it has shown their effectiveness on reducing the amount of the times they disrupt in class, improving performance on spelling and other simple school tasks like paying attention for longer. This ends up fixing the relationship between parents and child. Some other things to take into account is medication isn’t just taking stuff the doctor gives you, but also changing up the diet being able to help and aid those areas that don’t work properly. For example, food additives, refined sugars, and fatty acids have been associated with ADHD symptoms.  ConclusionsWe have discussed two different possible causes of ADHD in neurological research. The top-down theory says that ADHD begins with frontal and pre-frontal lobe dysfunction. The other theory says that the sub-cortical regions, the thalamus and the hypothalamus are responsible for ADHD. Neuro-imaging doesn’t show abnormality in the thalamus, but does show changes in the frontal and prefrontal area. Researchers agree that genetic factors are a strong contribution to the occurrence of ADHD. Also, when diagnosing ADHD in clinical practice, QEEG is available as an auxiliary tool, providing additional information regarding the QEEG subtypes. An elevated delta power and decreased theta power, or an elevated theta power and decreased fast wave likely indicates a diagnosis of ADHD. It was amazing being able to research this and see for myself how far we have come in the medical field especially in the microbiologic domain of research. We weren’t able to do QEEG back then and find out so much about what’s going on in the brain just from a couple of scans.  Biology Science Physiology PHYSIOLOGY 00 Share QuestionEmailCopy link Comments (0)

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