For all arguments in the following examples, evaluate the argument using the ARG conditions as you understand them from the introduction offered…


For all arguments in the following examples, evaluate the argumentusing the ARG conditions as you understand them from the introduction offered here. If the passage does not contain an argument, there is no argument to evaluate; simply note that there is no argument and give reasons for this answer. The first arguments are pre-standardized to make your work easier. If you think that you do not have enough background knowledge to determine whether premises are acceptable, omit the A condition and concentrate on R and G. 1. The Sibling Rivalry Case      1. People who have a brother or sister are in a family situation different from those who do not have a brother or sister.     2. People who have a brother or sister have to compete with their sibling for the par ents’ attention, whereas those who are only children do not have to compete with a sibling for this attention. 3. The Case of Innate Ideas -An innate idea would have to be stamped on the soul before birth. -If an idea were stamped on the soul before birth, it would be known by every infant. -There is no idea that is known to every infant. Therefore, -Innate ideas do not exist.  5. Levels of Knowledge? -Mathematical knowledge is precise. -Mathematical proofs are rigorous. -Mathematics is abstract. -The highest form of knowledge is precise, rigorous, and abstract. Therefore, -Mathematics is the highest form of knowledge. 7. The Case of Evolutionary Selfishness -Any action can be interpreted as being something the agent wants to do. So, -Any action can be interpreted as selfish. And, -Any action that can be interpreted as selfish is selfish. -Any action is, ultimately, the effect of the genetic structure of the agent who performs it. 9. Insects provide a concentrated source of protein and in many poor countries people have insufficient protein in their diets. So those who use insects as a food source are acting wisely. 11. The efforts of the United States to build democracies in Germany and Japan after World War II were highly successful. Therefore, American efforts to build democracies in Iraq and Afghanistan in the early twenty-first century will also be successful. 13. Commonly used words do not catch our attention because we are so accustomed to hearing them that we scarcely notice they are there. Therefore, effective writing uses a richly varied vocabulary. And that was something Shakespeare knew very well. 15. Competition results in the best system for all. We can easily see why this is the case if we consider how small businesses operate. If a town has only one bakery, the baker can make buns, pies, and muffins just as he wishes and charge the highest prices customers will tolerate. But if there are two or three bakeries, customers can select the best products at the lowest prices. With competition, there is pressure to bring quality up and prices down, which benefits consumers. Therefore, competitiveness is a force for good and should not be eliminated. 17. Background: This passage is taken from Bill Bryson’s description of Australia in Sunburned Country (Toronto: Anchor Canada 2001), where it appears on page 143. Bryson is talking about a tourist site called The Big Lobster. One of the more cherishable peculiarities of Australians is that they like to build big things in the shape of other things. Give them a bale of chicken wire, some fiberglass, and a couple of pots of paint and they will make you, say, an enormous pineapple or strawberry or, as here, a lobster. Then they put a café and a gift shop inside, erect a big sign beside the highway (for the benefit of people whose visual acuity does not evidently extend to spotting a fifty-foot-high piece of fruit standing beside an otherwise empty highway), then sit back and wait for the money to roll in.  Arts & Humanities Philosophy PHIL 102

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