at least one important objection to each of my 4 arguments. An objection is a counter-argument that tries to prove that one of my arguments is…

  

at least one important objection to each of my 4 arguments. https://www.iep.utm.edu/envi-eth/    An objection is a counter-argument that tries to prove that one of my arguments is logically flawed (because it is invalid or weak) or that it has a false premise.  The objections should be taken from the same article. This is the sourceInternet Encyclopedia of Philosophy “Environmental Ethics.” PUT YOUR OBJECTIONS IN STANDARD FORM, numbered premises first and conclusion last.  The conclusion of your objection or counter-argument is the opposite of the conclusion of the original argument.1. Environmental issues, like climate change and depletion of resources, will alter future humans far more than its influence on present ones. And, it is apparent that the measures and efforts that contemporary individuals make have great repercussions on the welfare of future individuals. So, moral obligations or standings are to be extended to future generations. 2. For Peter Singer, moral standing has sentience as the criterion: it refers to the capability to experience pleasure and pain. For Regan, moral standing is to be granted in every subject-of-a-life, that is, beings that encompass beliefs, wishes, emotions, a sense of prospective future and an ability to act. Animals can feel pain or be used for pleasure by humans as it is plausible that animals can be harmed, either by shooting , hunting or torturing them. Thus, extension of moral standing to animals with sentience or consciousness is necessary.  3. Schweitzer’s ethical assumptions suggest that all living entities possess a will to live, and humans must not intervene with or diminish this will. Moreover, living organisms possess their own good, have intrinsic value; that is, value for ownself, regardless of that of others, which grants moral status. Therefore, moral standing extension can be done towards living organisms. 4. Aldo Leopold’s holistic ethics grants moral status to the land by demanding that humans should cease to treat the land as a mere resource or an object. Land proves to be a source of energy, which flows through soils, animals and plants. While food chains carry the energy above the soil, decay due to death brings back the energy to the soil. Thus, moral standing towards holistic entities (such as land) should be extended. Arts & Humanities Philosophy PHIL 25

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